Nigeria: The Buhari Legacy

Nigeria: The Buhari Legacy

It could be incorrect to imagine President Muhammadu Buhari’s legacy could be a topic of controversy.

No, it will not be just like the bequest of many leaders, who had superintended over the affairs of countries for years.

That is perhaps a break from custom because the legacies of nationwide leaders have at all times been topics of essential argument for analysts and students.

In Nigeria, up to now, the Yakubu Gowon, Ibrahim Babangida, Olusegun Obasanjo, Umar Yar’Adua and even Murtala Mohammed years are sometimes points of strong debate, particularly on nationwide improvement, unity and progress.

However it will not be so within the case of Buhari.

In matching his promise with efficiency, historians and analysts might have a straightforward consensus on many points of his scorecard.

Put in a different way, it is unlikely the President’s file could be open to multiple interpretation.

Buhari, who, in his inaugural deal with in 2015, had stated, “Nigerians won’t remorse that they’ve entrusted nationwide accountability to us. We should not succumb to hopelessness and defeatism. We are able to repair our issues,” is abandoning an inheritance fraught with many puzzles.


As his tenure ends at midday subsequent Monday, the nation Buhari leaves behind is in sharp distinction with Nigeria he inherited from former President Goodluck Jonathan in 2015.

Observers consider Buhari’s is a extra divided, unsettled and impoverished Nigeria.

The President, who had premised his marketing campaign on safety, economic system and anti-corruption, is believed to have failed on the guarantees eight years after.

He did not resolve Nigeria’s age-long socio-economic challenges, however beneath his watch, the nation witnessed record-breaking retrogression on a number of Human Improvement Indices, HDI.

His staunch supporters and the President himself had severally scored the administration excessive, however statistics say one thing totally different on the economic system, safety, anti-corruption, infrastructure and nationwide unity amongst others.

ECONOMY: From 9% inflation to 22%

On the time Buhari got here to energy on Might 29, 2015, Nigeria’s economic system wasn’t the perfect of it as crude oil earnings had plummeted.

A barrel of oil offered at $65 in opposition to the $100 it attained beneath the Jonathan administration.

The nation’s GDP was $493. 3 billion however it declined to $440.8 billion in 2021.

Development fee in 2022 stood at 3.10 per cent, from the three.40 per cent recorded in 2021.

On Overseas Direct Funding, FDI, on the time Buhari got here to energy, Nigeria had attracted $98 billion within the earlier administration, however obtained $89.4 billion in Buhari’s eight-year reign, in line with information from Nairametrics.

A breakdown confirmed that of the $89.4 billion influx, $22.1 billion got here from fairness investments whereas $67.3 billion was debt-linked securities and repayable loans.

Earlier than his election, the President had boasted that the Naira would have equal worth with US greenback. However beneath his watch, the trade fee rose from N197 on the official fee to N745 on the parallel market in 2023.

Inside the interval beneath assessment, international reserves rose from $29.59 billion in 2015 to $35.31 billion as of April 20, 2023.

1.40 p.c

The administration earlier than Buhari had 6.07 per cent progress in 4 years, however the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics, NBS, stated the economic system grew by a median of 1.40 per cent beneath this regime.

When the President took over from Jonathan, Nigeria’s had single-digit inflation, which stood at 9 p.c. However as of December 2022, the NBS put the speed at 21.34 per cent.

Inflation, which led to every day will increase within the costs of products and companies, resulted within the Naira dropping greater than half its worth.

In 2015, a bag of rice was offered at N8, 000 whereas a litre of petrol was N87. As of Might 22, 2023, a bag of rice offered for N40, 000 whereas a litre of gasoline is greater than N200. A loaf of bread, which offered for N200, now goes for N1, 000.

As of April 2023, the nation’s Shopper Value Index, CPI, for meals stood at 640.0, in comparison with 176.3 factors it was in Might 2015.

Particularly, the index gauges the common fluctuation in costs of main meals objects.

The World Financial institution, in its 2022 Nigeria public finance assessment report, titled, ‘A Higher Future for All Nigerians’, stated Nigeria’s improvement stagnated since 2015.

“Nigeria’s improvement progress has stagnated. Between 2001 and 2014, Nigeria was a rising star in West Africa, with a median progress fee of seven per cent per 12 months, and it ranked among the many prime 15 fastest-growing economies on the planet”, the Financial institution famous.

“Nevertheless, this pattern ended abruptly in 2015, as oil costs fell, the safety scenario deteriorated, macroeconomic reforms have been reversed, and financial insurance policies grew to become more and more unpredictable”.

On energy technology, as of 2015, Nigeria was producing 4,949 megawatts, however at press time, it had dropped to 2,409.50 megawatts.

In keeping with the Affiliation of Energy Technology Corporations, the nationwide grid collapsed 98 instances beneath Buhari’s watch.

It noticed that complete energy technology capability loss within the vitality sector rose to N1.76tn, between 2015 and 2022.

Upon assumption of workplace, Buhari inherited a debt profile of roughly $10.32 billion in 2015, however he’s abandoning complete money owed of about N77 trillion.

The administration of ex-President Obasanjo authorities inherited $28 billion as international debt in 1999.

When it left in 2007, it was $2.11 billion after efficiently securing a write-off by the London and Paris Membership money owed

The Yar’adua/Jonathan authorities added $1.39 billion to what they inherited whereas the Jonathan authorities incurred a further $3.8 billion.

SECURITY: 56, 000 deaths in eight years

As of Might 29, 2015, Boko Haram terrorists posed a significant safety problem to the nation. They held sway in some territories and on the identical time might commit large-scale atrocities. The Buhari administration sooner or later succeeded in degrading the group’s capability to commit mass homicide past Borno State.

Sunday Vanguard recollects that upon assumption of workplace, the President had moved the navy command centre to Maiduguri in Borno State, via the institution of the Command and Management Centre, MCCC, within the state.

The purpose was to successfully struggle the Boko Haram insurgency. No matter the successes recorded, the sect stays a potent menace.

Nevertheless, identical to the economic system, safety is one space many consider Buhari carried out woefully. Whereas Boko Haram was the one main menace on the time he got here on board, Nigeria witnessed the delivery of different terrorist teams.

The actions of Ansaru terrorists, herdsmen, bandits, kidnappers and Unknown Gunmen, UGM, have led to the dying of hundreds beneath Buhari’s watch.

Majority are nonetheless unconvinced his dealing with of herdsmen and bandits’ menace made the nation extra unsafe than he met it. The truth is, a number of experiences said that Nigeria had extra deaths beneath Buhari’s administration than in earlier civilian regimes since 1999.

Information gleaned from Nigeria Safety Tracker, NST, confirmed that no fewer than 54, 948,000 pointless deaths have been recorded as of Might final 12 months.

A breakdown confirmed that a median of 21 individuals was killed every day as of 2022.

In his first 4 years alone, 25,794 individuals have been reportedly killed in varied assaults, in line with one other report by Premium Occasions.

Within the first quarter of this 12 months alone, Nigeria Mourn, a violent incident monitoring group, reported that no fewer than 1,151 civilians and 79 safety operatives have been killed.

The newest World Terrorism Index, GTI, report confirmed that Nigeria moved to eighth place from fourth place in 2022.


One of many main components that made Buhari’s 2015 victory attainable was the notion that he could be robust on corruption.

This was largely knowledgeable by the incorruptible picture individuals attributed to him given his file as navy Head of State.

For the reason that Jonathan administration was perceived as weak on anti-corruption, quite a bit was anticipated from Buhari in that house.

Nigeria had ranked 136th out of 168 international locations within the 2015 Transparency Worldwide Corruption Notion Index.

Eight years later, analysts really feel he hasn’t delivered on his promise of preventing corruption.

In his two phrases, the Financial and Monetary Crimes Fee, EFCC, has but to file high-profile convictions whereas many instances in opposition to former governors and ministers are pending earlier than the fee.

Within the 2022 annual Correction Notion Index, Nigeria nonetheless ranked among the many most corrupt nations. The nation ranked one hundred and fiftieth out of 180 international locations.

Nonetheless, there have been a couple of vivid spots within the anti-graft conflict because the EFCC had secured some forfeiture to the Federal Authorities.

The nation has additionally witnessed the repatriation of cash funds stashed abroad. Upon assumption of workplace, the President strengthened the Treasury Single Account and the IPPIS to make sure accountability within the remittance of public funds.

Buhari additionally spearheaded the modification of the Asset Administration Company Act in 2019 and 2021. The purpose was to streamline asset restoration and disposal, resulting in the Proceeds of Crime, Restoration and Administration Act 2022.

There have been additionally Government Orders to enhance the benefit of doing enterprise on the nation’s seaports.

8,871 convictions in eight years

In 2022, the EFCC stated it recorded 3,785 convictions, describing it as the best since its inception.

The fee was stated to have secured 103 in 2015, 195 in 2016, 312 in 2018 and 1,280 in 2019.

In 2020, 976 have been secured whereas it was 2,220 in 2021. The abstract of the determine confirmed that 8,871 convictions have been recorded beneath Buhari’s watch.

In 2015, EFCC recorded a complete of 103 convictions, in line with the EFCC. In 2016, the primary full 12 months of Buhari’s authorities, 195 convictions have been recorded. The quantity elevated to 312 in 2018, and 1, 280 in 2019.

The determine, nonetheless, decreased considerably to 976 convictions in 2020 and elevated to 2, 220 in 2021.

Irrespective of those, a number of occasions and actions have not helped Buhari’s anti-corruption file in eight years. Outstanding amongst them is the truth that a number of public workplace holders, who’ve instances on the EFCC, noticed their trials being discontinued or paused the second they defect to the ruling All Progressives Congress, APC.

  • Within the following pages, some Nigerians give their verdict on the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari.

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