SECAUCUS, NJ — /PRNewswire/ — The share of workers within the common US workforce testing constructive for marijuana following an on-the-job accident elevated to its highest degree in 25 years in 2022, in response to a brand new evaluation launched immediately by Quest Diagnostics (NYSE: DGX), a number one supplier of diagnostic data companies.
In 2022, post-accident marijuana positivity of urine drug assessments in the overall US workforce was 7.3%, a rise of 9% in comparison with 6.7% in 2021. The brand new peak follows a gentle improve in post-accident marijuana positivity yearly from 2012 to 2022. In that 10-year time body, post-accident marijuana positivity elevated 204.2%. From 2002 to 2009, post-accident marijuana workforce positivity declined.
These will increase in post-accident marijuana positivity correspond with legalization of marijuana in sure states. In 2012, Colorado and Washington grew to become the primary states to legalize marijuana for leisure use. Since then, 19 further states and the District of Columbia have legalized the leisure use of marijuana and 38 states (plus the District of Columbia) have legalized medical use, though both type of use stays unlawful underneath federal legislation.
“Intoxicating hashish merchandise, together with marijuana, can have a main affect on security at work and have been confirmed to sluggish response time, affect reminiscence and impair expertise important to driving. State legalization of the drug creates new challenges for employers,” mentioned Katie Mueller, a senior program supervisor on the Nationwide Security Council specializing in hashish security. “The Quest information present compelling proof that elevated use of hashish merchandise by workers can contribute to larger threat for accidents within the office. It’s crucial employers take the right steps to create and preserve a coverage that addresses hashish use, construct a safety-focused tradition and educate the workforce to maintain all employees secure on and off the job.”
In 2022, the mixed US workforce urine drug positivity for all medicine persevered at 4.6%—the best degree in twenty years. The 2021 and 2022 positivity charges have been the best since 2001, up greater than 30% from an all-time low in 2010-2012.
Whereas marijuana was the principle driver of workforce positivity will increase within the common US workforce, amphetamines positivity additionally contributed to the rise. Positivity for marijuana within the common US workforce elevated 10.3% (4.3% positivity in 2022 versus 3.9% positivity in 2021) and amphetamines positivity elevated 15.4% (1.5% positivity in 2022 versus 1.3% positivity in 2021). Whereas the corporate’s amphetamines information doesn’t differentiate between prescribed medicines and illicit drug use, the rise correlates with other data suggesting that using amphetamines, prescribed or illicit, has grown lately within the US.
The rising general drug positivity charge for common workforce urine testing was noticed extensively throughout US industries. Over the previous 5 years, the workforce positivity charge climbed in most business sectors, led by Lodging and Meals Providers growing 42.9% (4.9% in 2018 versus 7.0% in 2022), Retail Commerce growing 42.6% (5.4% in 2018 versus 7.7% in 2022), and Finance and Insurance coverage growing 38.5% (2.6% in 2018 versus 3.6% in 2022).
“Our 2022 Quest Diagnostics evaluation exhibits that the general US workforce positivity charge continued to be at a traditionally elevated degree in 2022, at the same time as a lot of the nation’s workforce returned to the workplace post-pandemic,” mentioned Keith Ward, Normal Supervisor and Vice President for Employer Options at Quest Diagnostics. “This historic rise appears to correspond with sharp will increase in positivity for marijuana in each pre-employment and post-accident drug assessments, suggesting that altering societal attitudes about marijuana could also be impacting office behaviors and placing colleagues in danger. The rise in amphetamines positivity can be notable, given the addictive potential and well being dangers related to this class of medicine.”
“12 months-over-year and five-year information level to constantly larger workforce drug positivity general, by business, and throughout a number of drug classes,” mentioned Suhash Harwani, PhD, Senior Director of Science for Employer Options at Quest Diagnostics. “As employers categorical concern for worker well being, wellness and security, they could need to take into account these information as a warning signal, notably as a rising physique of science demonstrates the dangers of marijuana to psychological and bodily well being.”
The brand new Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index™ (DTI) report is predicated on greater than 10.6 million deidentified urine, hair and oral-fluid drug take a look at outcomes reported between January and December 2022, geared toward offering perception into habits seen in employees throughout the mixed U.S. workforce by business and drug kind. The mixed US workforce consists of the overall US workforce of principally company-policy testing by personal employers in addition to the federally mandated, safety-sensitive workforce, which incorporates federal workers and the transportation and nuclear energy industries, and might embrace employees resembling pilots, truck drivers, prepare conductors and others required to drug take a look at underneath federal laws.
Evaluation and Conclusions
Marijuana positivity in states that let leisure and medical use continued to climb
Within the common US workforce, marijuana positivity elevated 10.3% 12 months over 12 months (3.9% in 2021 versus 4.3% in 2022). Marijuana positivity elevated 11.8% (5.1% in 2021 versus 5.7% in 2022) in states through which leisure marijuana is authorized and eight.3% (3.6% in 2021 versus 3.9% in 2022) in states through which medical marijuana is authorized. In states through which neither leisure nor medical marijuana is authorized, marijuana positivity elevated 3.3% (3.0% in 2021 versus 3.1% in 2022) 12 months over 12 months and 14.8% over 5 years (2.7% in 2018 versus 3.1% in 2022).
Within the federally mandated safety-sensitive workforce, marijuana positivity elevated nationally 14% 12 months over 12 months (0.86% in 2021 versus 0.98% in 2022). Marijuana positivity elevated 17% (0.94% in 2021 versus 1.1% in 2022) in states through which leisure marijuana is authorized. Marijuana positivity elevated 5.9% (0.85% in 2021 versus 0.90% in 2022) in states through which medical marijuana is authorized. In states through which neither leisure nor medical use marijuana is authorized, marijuana positivity elevated 12.7% (0.79% in 2021 versus 0.89% in 2022) 12 months over 12 months and 1.1% over 5 years (0.88% in 2018 versus 0.89% in 2022).
“Within the common US workforce, states which have legalized leisure and medical marijuana use exhibit larger positivity charges than the nationwide common. States that haven’t legalized marijuana seem to have positivity charges under the nationwide averages,” mentioned Dr. Harwani. “General, post-accident and pre-employment positivity take a look at charges among the many federally mandated, safety-sensitive inhabitants have at all times been decrease, suggesting the expectation of testing could also be a deterrent.”
Urine positivity charges for post-accident testing elevated over 5 years
The rise in marijuana post-accident positivity amongst personal employers mirrored a rise in general drug positivity in people examined post-accident. Within the common US workforce, charges of post-accident drug positivity elevated each 12 months over 12 months and over the previous 5 years in almost all specimen sorts examined. During the last 5 years, usually workforce urine testing, general post-accident positivity elevated 22.6% (8.4% in 2018 versus 10.3% in 2022). Particularly, post-accident positivity as in comparison with pre-employment assessments in urine specimens examined for marijuana and cocaine within the common U.S. workforce was larger by 58.7% and 230%, respectively.
Moreover, post-accident urine positivity for marijuana among the many federally mandated safety-sensitive inhabitants elevated 12 months over 12 months by 16.7% (1.8% in 2021 versus 2.1% in 2022) and over 5 years by 40% (1.5% in 2018 versus 2.1% in 2022). Pre-employment positivity for marijuana additionally elevated 18.2% for this group (1.1% in 2021 versus 1.3% in 2022) and 30% over 5 years (1.0% in 2018 versus 1.3% in 2022).
Submit-accident testing is carried out to judge whether or not drug use might have performed a task in a office incident prompting the drug take a look at. Each post-accident and pre-employment drug testing intention to guard non-drug utilizing employees from others who might use medicine within the office and pose a hazard.
US workforce positivity plateaued at 20-year excessive
The general positivity charge within the mixed US workforce, based mostly on greater than 9 million urine drug assessments, was 4.6% in 2022 and 2021, an improve of 31.4% from the all-time low of three.5% simply 11 years in the past (2010-2012). Within the common U.S. workforce, positivity elevated 1.8% (5.6% in 2021 versus 5.7% in 2022) and was 11.8% larger than in 2018 (5.1% in 2018 versus 5.7% in 2021).
General positivity within the federally mandated, safety-sensitive workforce based mostly on greater than 2.9 million urine drug assessments climbed 9.1% 12 months over 12 months (2.2% in 2021 and a pair of.4% in 2022). Whereas the positivity charge dropped 11.1% since 2018 (2.7% in 2018 to 2.4% in 2022), 2018 marked the introduction of testing for sure prescription opioids. Positivity charges based mostly on urine drug assessments in sure drug classes for the federally mandated, safety-sensitive workforce elevated in 2022. Of observe, marijuana elevated 14% (0.86% in 2021 to 0.98% in 2022) and amphetamines elevated 8.7% (0.69% in 2021 to 0.75% in 2022).
“Security-sensitive jobs, like pilots and a few federal positions, carry tasks which have larger potential threat of hurt to public security than most private-sector jobs,” mentioned Dr. Harwani. “Employers want assist figuring out people who’re succesful, competent and absolutely targeted to carry out their duties—and it’s discouraging to see such a steep improve in drug positivity for employees in safety-sensitive roles.”
Positivity for marijuana continued upward climb within the common US workforce
Positivity charges for marijuana within the common U.S. workforce, based mostly on greater than 6.3 million urine assessments, continued an upward climb, growing 10.3% (3.9% in 2021 versus 4.3% in 2022), the best positivity charge ever reported within the DTI, and 53.6% over the previous 5 years (2.8% in 2018).
Improve in 5-year positivity in each business; 9 of 15 elevated 12 months over 12 months
12 months-over-year positivity based mostly on urine drug assessments among the many common workforce elevated in 9 of 15 industries reported (industries are based mostly on the North American Trade Classification System [NAICS] commonplace utilized by federal statistical businesses in classifying enterprise institutions). Positivity in Well being Care and Social Help elevated 12 months over 12 months by 3.9% (5.1% in 2021 versus 5.3% in 2022) and by 14.3% in Public Administration (3.5% in 2021 versus 4.0% in 2022).
Over 5 years, workforce positivity elevated in each business class. Lodging and Meals Providers led the best way with a 42.9% improve in positivity (4.9% in 2018 versus 7.0% in 2022). Retail Commerce positivity was shut behind at 42.6% improve (5.4% in 2018 versus 7.7% in 2022). Positivity in Finance and Insurance coverage elevated 38.5% (2.6% in 2018 versus 3.6% in 2022). Positivity in Transportation and Warehousing elevated 35.9% (3.9% in 2018 versus 5.3% in 2022). Development elevated 14.6% (4.1% in 2018 versus 4.7% in 2022). Manufacturing elevated 21.6% (3.7% in 2018 versus 4.5% in 2022).
Marijuana, cocaine and amphetamines confirmed widespread will increase throughout business sectors
Marijuana positivity was highest in Retail Commerce and Lodging and Meals Providers, at 8.1% in 2022. Over 5 years, marijuana positivity in Retail Commerce elevated 131.4% (from 3.5% in 2018 versus 8.1% in 2022). Marijuana positivity in Lodging and Meals Providers elevated 102.5% (from 4.0% in 2018 versus 8.1% in 2022). Cocaine positivity elevated in 12 of 15 industries 12 months over 12 months and was highest in building at 0.33%. Amphetamines positivity elevated 15.4%, pushed by will increase in 14 of 15 industries, and was highest in Training Providers, at 2.1%.
Cocaine positivity was blended within the common US workforce
Positivity for cocaine based mostly on urine assessments within the common US workforce ticked up 4.8% (0.21% in 2021 versus 0.22% in 2022) and positivity for cocaine over the previous 5 years declined 21.4% (0.28% in 2018 versus 0.22% in 2022). Positivity charges for cocaine based mostly on urine assessments within the federally mandated safety-sensitive workforce stayed even (0.21% in 2021 and 2022) and have been down 25% over 5 years (0.28% in 2018 versus 0.22% in 2022).
Positivity for 6-AM (heroin) in all urine drug assessments decreased over 5 years
Positivity for 6-AM metabolite (heroin) within the common U.S. workforce decreased 53.8% (0.013% in 2021 versus 0.006% in 2022) and 80% over 5 years (0.03% in 2018 versus 0.006% in 2022). Positivity for the 6-AM metabolite (heroin) within the federally mandated, safety-sensitive workforce decreased 40% (0.005% in 2021 versus 0.003% in 2022) and 76.9% over 5 years (0.013% in 2018 versus 0.003% in 2022).